Demystifying Customer Acquisition Cost: The Essential Guide for Every Business

Magnet on a table that shows the words "Attract new customers" (customer acquisition cost)

In today’s competitive business landscape, understanding where every dollar goes isn’t just good practice—it’s vital for sustainability and growth.

One of the key metrics that can make or break your profitability is the Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC). But what exactly is CAC, and why is it such a game-changer for businesses of all sizes?

If you’ve ever pondered over questions like, “How much does it really cost to gain a new customer?” or “Is my marketing budget actually yielding a positive return?”, then you’re in the right place.

This comprehensive guide will not only break down the concept of CAC in simple terms but also offer actionable insights on how to calculate, analyze, and optimize it for your business’s unique needs. Whether you’re a budding entrepreneur or a seasoned business owner, understanding CAC can unlock new avenues of efficiency and profitability for your venture. Let’s go!

What is Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)?

Customer Acquisition Cost is the amount of money a business spends to acquire a new customer. In essence, it quantifies the cost associated with persuading a potential customer to purchase a product or service.

How to Calculate CAC

The CAC formula is simple: divide the total cost of all sales and marketing efforts by the number of new customers acquired in a given period.

Here’s the simple customer acquisition cost formula for you to remember:

Customer Acquisition Cost formula: Total costs spent on customer acquisition divided by the number of customers acquired.
Demystifying Customer Acquisition Cost: The Essential Guide for Every Business 6

While this formula to calculate customer acquisition cost might seem like an oversimplification, calculating CAC accurately is crucial for businesses to make informed decisions about their marketing strategies, budget allocation, and pricing.

Breaking Down the Costs: What to Include in the CAC Numerator

Understanding the specifics of what goes into the numerator of the CAC formula is crucial for an accurate calculation. While it might seem straightforward, there are often hidden or overlooked expenses that businesses forget to include. Let’s dive into the components that constitute the total costs spent on customer acquisition.

Advertising and Marketing Expenditures

This is the most apparent category and includes costs like online ads (Google Ads, Facebook Ads, etc.), traditional advertising (billboards, TV, radio), and other promotional activities.

Content Creation Costs

From blog posts to videos, the creation of content aimed at attracting new customers comes with its price. This can include payments to freelance writers, graphic designers, video production, and other content-related expenses.

Wages and Salaries

The portions of salaries or commissions paid to sales and marketing teams directly involved in customer acquisition should be considered. Don’t forget to factor in benefits and bonuses.

Software and Tools

Any platform or software that plays a role in attracting and converting new customers is essential to factor in. This can range from CRM tools, marketing automation platforms, email marketing services, to analytics software.

Events and Trade Shows

While these might not be regular occurrences, the costs associated with hosting, attending, or setting up booths at trade shows, webinars, or any other events for customer acquisition purposes should be accounted for.

Third-party Agency and Consultancy Fees

If you’re outsourcing any aspect of your marketing—whether it’s to an advertising agency, a search engine optimization firm, or a social media consultancy—their fees are part of your acquisition cost.

Lead Generation Costs

Expenses related to lead generation efforts, such as purchasing email lists, running lead magnets, or setting up landing pages, should be included. Even updating your website to get more conversions should be included in this expense. If you are interested in learning more about how to increase your conversions, check out our blog on ways to increase your conversion rate. 

Training and Workshops

Any training or workshops that specifically equip your sales or marketing team with skills to acquire new customers should be factored into the costs.

Overhead Allocation

It’s reasonable to allocate a portion of general overhead costs (like rent, utilities, or office supplies) to customer acquisition, especially if you have space or resources primarily dedicated to sales and marketing efforts.

To ensure an accurate CAC, businesses should maintain meticulous records and regularly review what they’re factoring into their acquisition costs.

Two people shaking hands outside a building
Demystifying Customer Acquisition Cost: The Essential Guide for Every Business 7

Customer Acquisition Cost Examples

Understanding customer acquisition cost becomes clearer with tangible examples. Here are five fictional scenarios across different industries to illustrate how to calculate customer acquisition cost and the potential implications for business operations:

Restaurant – “Sunny’s Bistro”

Scenario: Sunny’s Bistro launches a new marketing campaign with flyers, social media promotions, and a local radio ad.

Costs: Flyers ($200), social media promotions ($400), radio ad ($600), extra staff hours for the campaign ($300).

New Customers Acquired: 150

CAC Calculation: ($200 + $400 + $600 + $300) / 150 = $10

Sunny’s average bill per customer is $30, with a profit of $12. With a customer acquisition cost of $10, they make a profit of $2 for every new customer acquired through this campaign. To increase profitability, Sunny might reconsider the distribution of advertising expenses or focus on customer retention strategies.

E-commerce Business – “TechGadget Pro”

Scenario: TechGadget Pro spends on Facebook Ads and influencer partnerships to promote its new range of headphones.

Costs: Facebook Ads ($5,000), influencer partnerships ($2,000).

New Customers Acquired: 450

CAC Calculation: ($5,000 + $2,000) / 450 = $15.56

If each set of headphones nets a profit of $40, a customer acquisition of $15.56 is sustainable. However, by analyzing which source brought in more customers, they could potentially optimize ad spend for better results.

Software Company – “CloudConnect”

Scenario: CloudConnect, a SaaS company, invests in Google Ads, a webinar series, and sales team commissions to attract new subscribers.

Costs: Google Ads ($8,000), webinar series ($2,500), sales commissions ($4,500).

New Customers Acquired: 500

CAC Calculation: ($8,000 + $2,500 + $4,500) / 500 = $30

If CloudConnect charges $50/month per user and retains customers for an average of 12 months, their customer lifetime value (CLV) far exceeds the customer acquisition cost. The company can continue its acquisition strategy or even invest more to fuel growth.

Manufacturing Company – “AutoMakers Inc.”

Scenario: AutoMakers Inc. attends trade shows and engages in B2B advertising to acquire new corporate clients for their parts.

Costs: Trade shows ($15,000), B2B advertising ($10,000), travel and accommodation ($5,000).

New Customers Acquired: 10 (corporate contracts)

CAC Calculation: ($15,000 + $10,000 + $5,000) / 10 = $3,000

If each corporate contract guarantees a profit of $20,000 over its lifetime, an acquisition cost of $3,000 is cost-effective. However, AutoMakers should regularly review the quality of contracts and possibly refine targeting for future trade shows.

Fitness Gym – “FlexFit Arena”

Scenario: FlexFit runs a local ad campaign and offers referral bonuses to its members to gain new sign-ups.

Costs: Local ads ($1,200), referral bonuses ($800).

New Customers Acquired: 80

CAC Calculation: ($1,200 + $800) / 80 = $25

If each new member subscribes to a yearly membership worth $400 with a profit of $200, a customer acquisition cost of $25 is highly favorable. FlexFit could scale their referral program to leverage word-of-mouth even more.

LTV to CAC Comparison: The Key to Sustainable Growth

The comparison between Customer Lifetime Value (LTV) and Customer Acquisition Cost is one of the most critical metrics for businesses to evaluate the long-term viability and profitability of their customer acquisition strategies. Let’s delve deeper into the relationship between these two metrics, how to interpret them, and why they are vital.

LTV highlights the total profit expected from a customer throughout their journey with a company. It’s the long-term value each customer brings. In contrast, CAC pinpoints the cost of bringing that customer onboard.

The LTV to CAC ratio, by dividing LTV by CAC, offers a clear picture of return on customer acquisition investments. For instance, a 3:1 ratio indicates that for every dollar spent on acquisition, a three-dollar return is expected over the customer’s lifecycle.

This ratio’s importance? It’s about gauging profitability and growth. A 1:1 ratio can signal potential sustainability issues, while a 3:1 ratio suggests a balance between profit and investment, providing room for business expenses.

Companies can optimize this balance by enhancing customer value (LTV) with retention strategies and by refining acquisition methods to lower CAC. Yet, equilibrium is essential. A very high or low LTV:CAC ratio can hint at missed opportunities or unsustainable spending.

In essence, balancing LTV and CAC ensures sustainable growth and profitability, acting as a guiding compass for business strategy.

Blocks stacked on top of each other spelling the word "growth"
Demystifying Customer Acquisition Cost: The Essential Guide for Every Business 8

Organic CAC vs Inorganic CAC

In the world of customer acquisition, businesses often find themselves balancing between two primary channels: organic and inorganic. Each has its own advantages, costs, and implications for a company’s growth strategy. By understanding the distinction between organic customer acquisition cost and inorganic customer acquisition cost, businesses can allocate resources more effectively and design a holistic growth strategy.

Organic CAC

Organic Customer Acquisition Cost stands as the cost tied to acquiring a customer through natural, unpaid methods. Picture this as the serene, untouched path in a dense forest. When we say “organic,” we’re alluding to strategies like word-of-mouth referrals, optimizing your website for search engines (known as SEO), creating engaging blog posts or videos, and those spontaneous social media interactions. 

However, even though organic might imply “free,” there are still tangible costs involved. This often comes in the form of time and resources funneled into SEO efforts, consistent content creation, and the art and science of social media engagement. One of the most enticing elements about Organic CAC is its long-term yield. Once established, efforts like SEO and content marketing can offer prolonged benefits. Moreover, customers acquired organically usually resonate more with the brand, leading to enhanced loyalty.

But, like all things, it has its challenges. Organic growth is a test of patience, requiring sustained efforts over time. Furthermore, the dynamic nature of search algorithms and the online landscape means businesses must continually adapt and refresh their strategies.

Inorganic CAC

Contrastingly, Inorganic Customer Acquisition Cost is a bit more direct. If Organic CAC is the scenic forest path, then Inorganic CAC is the express highway with a toll booth. This involves allocating a budget to acquire customers. We’re diving into realms like pay-per-click ads, sponsored social media campaigns, and strategic affiliate partnerships. 

The main costs here revolve around ad spends on various platforms, producing and disseminating sponsored content, and any commissions or fees from partnerships. The allure of Inorganic CAC is its speed and precision. With a proper budget, businesses can see immediate traction and have better control over targeting specific demographics. 

However, the pathway isn’t without its bumps. It can quickly become a costly endeavor, and the moment the funds dry up, so does the influx of customers. Moreover, a heavy dependency on paid methods might expose businesses to the ever-fluctuating ad costs and evolving platform policies.

Balancing the Two:

The most effective growth strategies often strike a balance between organic and inorganic acquisition methods. While organic efforts build a strong foundation and foster trust, inorganic strategies can fill gaps, target specific opportunities, and accelerate growth when needed. 

By understanding the nuances of both organic and inorganic customer acquisition cost, businesses can optimize their overall customer acquisition strategy, ensuring both short-term results and long-term sustainability.

Marketers at a table with papers, a laptop, and a calculator discussing their customer acquisition strategy
Demystifying Customer Acquisition Cost: The Essential Guide for Every Business 9

10 Industry Factors that Affect CAC

Ever wondered why acquiring a customer in the tech sector might cost vastly different than in the fashion world? Welcome to the intricate universe of Customer Acquisition Costs (CAC), which, much to many business owners’ surprise, fluctuates extensively across various industries. Let’s dive into some of the key factors that paint this diverse CAC landscape:

1. The Product or Service in Spotlight

  • Complexity Matters: Think about the difference between buying a simple mobile app and purchasing an intricate software suite designed for large enterprises. The latter often involves multiple stages, from demos to negotiations, thereby pushing the CAC upwards.
  • Price Points: Acquiring a customer for a luxury condo is inherently more resource-intensive than selling a candy bar. High-ticket offerings typically have a heftier CAC due to the extended marketing and sales efforts they demand.  However, it’s important to remember that the higher profit from these types of products or services can also offset these initial costs in the end.

2. The Lengthy or Swift Sales Cycles

The span from first interaction to purchase can greatly vary. B2B spaces, especially those with premium services, often witness elongated sales journeys. This longer duration demands consistent marketing nudges, inadvertently increasing CAC.

3. Competitive Landscapes

In markets where competition is thick and fierce, expect to shell out more. The need for distinctive advertising or a unique selling proposition can quickly amplify the CAC.

4. Demographics and Reach

Targeting millennials on TikTok is one thing, but trying to reach high-net-worth individuals via exclusive events or luxury magazines is a whole different ballpark. The latter will inevitably have an elevated CAC.

5. Channel Preferences

Certain industries lean towards pricier outreach channels. Imagine pharma brands that rely on clinical trials or global conferences versus a local eatery promoting on Instagram.

6. Regulatory Hoops

Heavily-regulated domains, think finance or healthcare, often come with added layers of marketing scrutiny. Ensuring compliance doesn’t just lengthen the process but can also spike the associated costs.

7. The Need for Trust and Enlightenment

For trailblazers introducing groundbreaking products or services, the initial phase might require a hefty investment in customer education. Think webinars, workshops, and other measures to nurture trust.

8. Balancing Retention and Acquisition

In spaces where retaining a customer is gold (hello, subscription models!), the pendulum might swing more towards customer happiness than acquisition. Such industries might experience a marginally reduced CAC.

9. Regional Nuances

The cost of operating or promoting in New York could be vastly different than in Bali. Factors like demand dynamics, currency valuations, or local economic health can play a significant role.

10. The Scale Game

Business behemoths or industries where scale is a tangible advantage can often spread out their CAC, resulting in more palatable averages.

To sum it up, CAC isn’t a static number. Its variance across industries, influenced by an array of factors, offers a rich tapestry of insights. Understanding these nuances doesn’t just empower businesses to budget wisely but also to strategize effectively in the competitive arena.

Average Customer Acquisition Costs By Industry

Knowing which factors influence customer acquisition costs, we can now explore the average customer acquisition costs by industry according to First Page Sage:

IndustryOrganic CACInorganic CACCombined Average CAC
Aerospace & Defense$526$918$624
Addiction Treatment$357$506$394
B2B SaaS$205$341$239
Business Consulting$410$901$533
Commercial Insurance$590$600$593
Environmental Services$229$761$362
Financial Services$644$1,202$784
Higher Education & College$862$1,985$1,143
HVAC Services$211$549$296
Industrial IoT$557$788$615
IT & Managed Services$325$840$454
Legal Services$584$1,245$749
Medical Device$501$755$565
Oil & Gas$710$1,003$783
PCB Design & Manufacturing$330$658$412
Real Estate$660$1,185$791
Software Development$680$841$720
Solar Energy$235$707$353
Transportation & Logistics$436$732$510

How to Improve CAC

For businesses eager to improve Customer Acquisition Cost while enhancing the value they provide to customers, focusing on conversion rate optimization (CRO) is paramount. CRO is the process of increasing the percentage of website visitors or potential customers who take a desired action, be it signing up for a newsletter, purchasing a product, or requesting a demo. Here’s a detailed look at some CRO tactics businesses can implement:

Utilize FAQs

Addressing common questions can expedite the decision-making process for prospects. Review common customer inquiries and create a comprehensive FAQ section on your website or product page. This ensures potential customers have their concerns addressed up front, reducing barriers to conversion.

Collect Customer Feedback

Direct feedback can uncover hidden barriers to conversion and areas for product or service improvement.Use surveys, feedback forms, or direct interviews to gather insights. Act on the feedback to refine your offerings, ensuring they align with customer needs and preferences.

Create Comparisons

In a crowded market, showing how your product or service stacks up against competitors can tilt the scales in your favor. Design clear comparison charts or matrices showcasing the benefits of your offering vis-à-vis competitors. Highlight areas where you excel, making it easier for potential customers to recognize your value proposition.

Try a Referral Program:

Word-of-mouth can be a powerful tool, and incentivizing current customers to refer others can boost conversions. Implement a referral program where current customers receive benefits (discounts, freebies, or exclusive content) for bringing in new clients.

Use Testimonials:

Social proof can alleviate concerns and establish trust. Collect and showcase testimonials from satisfied customers. Incorporate these on your landing pages, product pages, and even in advertising creatives. If possible, supplement testimonials with case studies for a more in-depth success narrative.

Leverage a CRM

A Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system can streamline the sales process, ensuring leads don’t fall through the cracks and that every touchpoint is optimized for conversion. Integrate a CRM system that aligns with your business needs. Use it to track leads, customer interactions, and sales conversions. Over time, analyze the data to find bottlenecks or missed opportunities, and refine your sales cycle accordingly.

Remember, these are just a few strategies to help move your business forward. But to have a truly successful time with CAC, you need to take in to account your entire marketing process. If you’re interested in learning more about what marketing KPIs can help guide you on your journey, check out our blog on important marketing KPIs to track

Two people shaking hands
Demystifying Customer Acquisition Cost: The Essential Guide for Every Business 10

Final Thoughts

Understanding and optimizing Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) is crucial for any business’s growth and profitability. By delving into industry-specific CAC benchmarks and implementing targeted conversion rate optimization strategies, businesses can drive more value from their marketing efforts.

Remember, it’s not just about acquiring customers—it’s about acquiring them efficiently. Armed with the insights and tactics highlighted in this blog, companies can make more informed decisions, refine their acquisition approaches, and ensure they get the best return on their marketing investments. Stay proactive, stay informed, and continually refine your strategies for optimal success.

Frequently Asked Questions 

How to Calculate CAC For Different Marketing Channels?

Understanding the customer acquisition cost (CAC) for different marketing channels is pivotal for any marketer. Knowing the CAC for each channel not only helps in identifying the most cost-effective channels but also allows you to smartly allocate your marketing budget.

Here’s a simple way to calculate CAC for different marketing channels:

Aggregate Marketing Expenditure: Begin by collecting all your marketing expenses for a given period. If you’ve invested in Google Ads or Facebook advertising, this might fall under a category such as “pay-per-click” (PPC). Investments in SEO or content might be grouped as “Inbound Marketing Costs.”

Basic Division Approach: A straightforward way to determine CAC is to divide your total spend in each category by the number of customers acquired. This gives a rough estimate. However, this approach assumes each channel contributes equally to customer acquisition, which isn’t always the case.

Account for Specific Channel Efficiency: The broad division method can be misleading. Let’s say you tried PPC for a day, spending just $10. If you acquired a customer from this, your CAC for PPC would seem remarkably low. However, making long-term decisions based on this would be erroneous, given the limited data.

Utilize Conversion Tracking for E-commerce: For businesses selling physical products online, platforms like Google Ads offer conversion tracking. This tool shows which ads led directly to sales, helping you accurately determine the CAC for such campaigns.

Employ Customer Analytics Tools: Advanced analytics tools can track a customer’s “last touch” attribution. That is, the final channel a customer engaged with before making a purchase. For instance, if a customer was acquired through an organic search, it suggests your SEO strategies were effective for that acquisition.
In essence, while basic methods can provide a ballpark CAC figure, a nuanced approach that considers the effectiveness of each channel will deliver more accurate and actionable insights.

What is the difference between CPA and CAC?

CPA (Cost Per Acquisition) refers to the total cost of acquiring a customer through a specific marketing campaign or channel. It focuses purely on the costs associated with getting a conversion, which might be a sale, sign-up, or another desired action. If you are interested in learning more about CPA and how to leverage it for your business, check out our blog on what CPA is and how to optimize it.

Meanwhile, CAC is a broader metric that considers the total costs associated with acquiring a new customer, including the costs of research, marketing, sales, and any other related expenses. It gives a comprehensive view of the costs involved in bringing a customer on board

What is a good customer acquisition cost?

A “good” CAC cannot be defined universally as it varies by industry, business model, and market. Instead, it’s better to consider CAC in relation to the value a customer brings over their lifetime (Lifetime Value or LTV). A general rule of thumb is that your LTV should be at least 3x your CAC for a business to be sustainable, maintain a healthy marketing spend, and grow effectively.

How do you calculate CAC from expense report?

To calculate CAC from an expense report:

a. Sum up all the expenses related to marketing and sales over a given period from the report. This includes advertising costs, salaries for marketing and sales teams, software and tools, etc.

b. Determine the number of new customers acquired during the same period.

c. Divide the total expenses by the number of new customers.


What is the cost of acquiring customers vs. keeping customers?

Acquiring a new customer is often significantly more expensive than retaining an existing one and can add significantly to your marketing costs. Various studies suggest that acquiring new paying customers can cost anywhere from 5 to 25 times more than retaining an existing one. This disparity emphasizes the importance of customer retention strategies, as increasing customer retention rates by just 5% can lead to an increase in profits of 25% to 95%, according to the Harvard Business Review.

Picture of Noelle Thuillier

Noelle Thuillier

Noelle is a Content Specialist for WGM. She writes and edits all business content, including blogs, press releases, social media posts, and technical writing pieces. With over ten years of experience writing, Noelle has been published on many reputable sites during her career, including and Before coming to WGM, she worked as a News Director at KWHI in Brenham, Texas. Noelle oversaw the newsroom writing stories, producing content, and being an on-air personality. In addition to her bachelor’s degree in Political Science, Noelle holds a Master in Arts degree in Communication and Media Studies from the University of Greenwich in London, England. Noelle’s other passion in life is her family. She enjoys spending time with her husband, Joe, daughter, Frankie, and English Bulldog, Alvin. She also loves to travel, with her favorite destinations so far being Ireland and the Czech Republic.

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